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Dr. Carolina Soekmadji studies different types of extracellular vesicles, specifically trying to understand their connection to prostate cancer.

In this discussion, she describes 

  • how different types of extracellular vesicles seem to react differently to the same substance,
  • why the CD9 vesicle- driven proliferation under different androgen conditions is important, and
  • what this means in how doctors can individualize prostate cancer treatment.


Dr. Carolina Soekmadji works as a senior research officer at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute and an Adjunct board member of ISEV (International Society for Extracellular Vesicles).

She studied for her Master’s in Japan and completed her PhD work in Australia, where she studied the exocytosis and endocytosis of synoptic vesicles.

She discusses the typical therapy for prostate cancer where doctors decrease the androgen presence, also called ADT. While this usually has a desired effect, there’s always a group of patients that don’t seem to show an effective response. While cancer cells initially die in this group, the cancer cells return and start growing again. Dr. Soekmadji has located a specific vesicle that appears to grow under both conditions: androgen presence or absence. She thinks that this vesicle may make the difference between these two populations and their response.

 Dr. Soekmadji covers general causes for prostate cancer as well. She continues to study the activity of extracellular vesicles, and how and why this particular vesicle responds as it does and why this happens in some patients but not others. 

Dr. Carolina Soekmadji offers a general course on extracellular vesicles and health issues through Coursera and the University of California that’s open to the general public.

For more about her work and contact information, see

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